Telford, Evan James. One of the fastest growing fields in condensed matter physics is that of two-dimensional materials; compounds that promise to revolutionize nanotechnology due to the ability to easily isolate clean atomically thin sheets of conducting material for use in atomic-scale circuits. Since the initial demonstration of the electric-field effect in nanocircuits fabricated from mechanically exfoliated graphene, the number of available compounds that can be isolated and used in atomically thin circuits has exponentially grown to include diverse electrical properties from metals and insulators to superconductors and magnets. The bulk compounds from which flakes are isolated are known as van der Waals materials named for their intrinsic structural anisotropy resulting in weak van der Waals chemical bonds in one dimension. Since this field is relatively young, there are a multitude of branching opportunities for experimental advancement.
Raman Studies of 2-Dimensional van der Waals Materials - White Rose eTheses Online
Johannes van der Waals — He is best known for his work on an equation of state for gases and liquids. During this period, he worked hard and continued to educate himself to earn qualifications to become a primary school teacher. His interest in mathematics and nature sciences grew and van der Waals was able to attend the University of Leiden. Still, he could not enroll as a regular university student, but he was able to take up to four courses a year and eventually became a physics teacher at a school for children of the higher middle class in
Doctoral Thesis: Graphene metal interactions beyond Van der Waals forces
In chemistry and thermodynamics , the Van der Waals equation or Van der Waals equation of state ; named after Dutch physicist Johannes Diderik van der Waals is an equation of state that generalizes the ideal gas law based on plausible reasons that real gases do not act ideally. The ideal gas law treats gas molecules as point particles that interact with their containers but not each other, meaning they neither take up space nor change kinetic energy during collisions i. This leads to: . The second modification made to the ideal gas law accounts for the fact that gas molecules do in fact interact with each other they usually experience attraction at low pressures and repulsion at high pressures and that real gases therefore show different compressibility than ideal gases.
Topological qubits are among the most promising approaches for scalable fault-tolerant quantum computing, by employing topological superconductors — a material class not found in nature. As evidenced by recent efforts of the German Research Foundation DFG , a promising approach to engineer topological superconductors is to induce superconductivity into topologically non-trivial matter via the proximity effect. By combining topological superconductors with magnetism, so-called Majorana quasi-particles can be realized, which form the basis for quantum computation.