In biology , cell signaling cell signalling in British English , or cell-cell communication, governs the basic activities of cells and coordinates multiple-cell actions. Biological processes are complex molecular interactions that involve many signals. The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development , tissue repair , and immunity , as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Errors in signaling interactions and cellular information processing may cause diseases such as cancer , autoimmunity , and diabetes.
Osmosis and Cells: How Osmosis Works in Cell Membrane Functions
Biochemical Journal | Portland Press
Skip navigation. The CFTR gene encodes a protein in cell membranes in epithelial tissues and affects multiple organ systems in the human body. Mutations in the CFTR gene cause dysfunctional regulation of cell electrolytes and water content. Research on the CFTR mutation has shed light on the ways in which this gene is vital to normal human development. Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disease, meaning it is inherited when a child receives one mutated copy of the CFTR gene from each parent.
Lysosome biology in autophagy
Studying animal and plant cells is a wonderful way for students to understand life at its most basic level. No matter how complex or simple the organism all plants and animals are made up of cells - from the microscopic single celled paramecium to the hundreds of billions of skin, bone, nerve and muscle cells that make up you. Yet when viewing cells under a microscope, or looking at slides or pictures, it may be difficult to grasp the cell is a three dimensional unit capable of carrying out all of life processes all on its own. All cells have the ability to metabolize food for energy, respond to the environment as well as grow and reproduce.
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles undergoing coordinated cycles of fission and fusion, referred as 'mitochondrial dynamics', in order to maintain their shape, distribution and size. Their transient and rapid morphological adaptations are crucial for many cellular processes such as cell cycle, immunity, apoptosis and mitochondrial quality control. Mutations in the core machinery components and defects in mitochondrial dynamics have been associated with numerous human diseases. These dynamic transitions are mainly ensured by large GTPases belonging to the Dynamin family. Mitochondrial fission is a multi-step process allowing the division of one mitochondrion in two daughter mitochondria.