The soul is not altered by death and the body becomes one with the earth after death. Because people are not fully contained in their bodies, they live on. Most people do not know that the soul is immortal, and that causes fear of death. Socrates also points out that if this were not the case, soon the world would be dead. The soul is immortal, it never dies. Instead, it just transfers out of the body when the body dies and then rejoins the body at.
Arthur Schopenhauer (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Personal identity is the unique numerical identity of a person over time. In philosophy , the problem of personal identity  is concerned with how one is able to identify a single person over a time interval, dealing with such questions as, "What makes it true that a person at one time is the same thing as a person at another time? In contemporary metaphysics , the matter of personal identity is referred to as the diachronic problem of personal identity. Analytic philosophy and continental philosophy both inquire about the nature of identity.
How is the mind connected to the body? Are they two separate things or are the body and the mind the same thing? There are different theories to answer these questions. A philosopher, Descarte, believes in Cartesian Dualism, which is that the mind and body both exist, but are two distinct things: physical stuff and mental stuff.
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