In May , Gillian Shephard , Secretary of State for Education and Employment, commissioned an inquiry, led by the then Chancellor of the University of Nottingham, Sir Ron Dearing , into the funding of British higher education over the next 20 years. A detailed assessment of the issues has, however, convinced us that the arguments in favour of a contribution to tuition costs from graduates in work are strong, if not widely appreciated. They relate to equity between social groups, broadening participation, equity with part-time students in higher education and in further education, strengthening the student role in higher education, and identifying a new source of income that can be ring-fenced for higher education. There is a wide array of options from which to choose, ranging from asking graduates to contribute only to their living costs through to asking all graduates to contribute to their tuition costs.
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Elizabeth I | Biography, Facts, Mother, & Death | Britannica
The purchase of officer commissions in the British Army was the practice of paying money to the Army to be made an officer of a cavalry or infantry regiment of the English and later British Army. By payment, a commission as an officer could be secured, avoiding the need to wait to be promoted for merit or seniority. This practice was the usual way to obtain a commission in the Army from the 17th to the late 19th century. Formally, the purchase price of a commission was a cash bond for good behaviour, liable to be forfeited to the Army's cashiers accountants in the event of cowardice, desertion, or gross misconduct.
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Johannes Gutenberg started experimenting with printing by In , Gutenberg obtained backing from the financier, Johann Fust, whose impatience and other factors led to Gutenberg's loss of his establishment to Fust several years later. He was the third son of Freile zum Gensfleisch and his second wife, Else Wirick zum Gutenberg, whose maiden name Johann later adopted.
In addition, MPs are able to claim allowances to cover the costs of running an office and employing staff, and maintaining a constituency residence or a residence in London. The Independent Parliamentary Standards Authority was introduced in response to the parliamentary expenses scandal that broke in Members of parliament were unpaid until , as it was assumed they had independent means,  which restricted membership of Parliament to well-off men. There had been attempts since the late 18th century to provide salaries. The Labour Party , founded in , pressed for MPs to be paid, allowing men— and women from —who could not afford to serve unpaid to become members of Parliament.